Exercise modified (E. Czarny, E. Nojszewska, Mikroekonomia – zbiór zadań). The utility function of Barnaba is given as follows: U(x,y) = 8xy additional workouts in Polish: Czarny, E., E. Nojszewska, , ” Mikroekonomia: zbiór zadań”, PWE. additional workouts in Polish: Laidler, D. additional workouts in Polish: Czarny, E., E. Nojszewska, , ” Mikroekonomia: zbiór zadań”, PWE. additional workouts in Polish: Laidler, D., S. Estrin,

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Mikołaj Czajkowski – Literatura

The economic theory, used by the economics of competition law, nojszswska at its disposal many concepts and instruments for the evaluation of market effects of an identified collusion or for excluding the existence of such an agreement on a given relevant market.

Analyzed will be examples taking place in economic mikroeknomia. Widely discussed in literature, this is justified from the economic perspective by the role competition plays in achieving resource allocation and the effectiveness of firms acting under competitive pressure which in turn holds back consumer prices, maintaining or increasing social wellbeing2.

Faculty of Economics and Sociology. The interdependence theories of oligopolistic markets were developed further by the game theory.

Microeconomics – University of Łódź

Hovenkamp, Federal Antitrust Policy. In the second stage, an analysis of the trade policy of the companies participating in an alleged cartel is undertaken and its consistency assessed with an operating scheme of a cartel agreement described in the economics of competition law.

Are market processes that indicate collusion not more important than the agreement itself if it was never implemented? Third, the volume of production is related to natural markets and their demand. The balance of the company with a full monopoly 8. The main characteristics of oligopoly include: If asked to solve a problem at the board by the instructor, you do not receive any points.


The Bertrand model assumes the existence of reserves in production capacity, as the purpose of the price game between competitors is customer interception. All participants of the nojszewsia are allowed to take the retake test, regardless of the result from the first approach. Additional demand for cheaper goods may only be satisfied subject to production increase.

This frequently proves a major barrier for the application of an economic analysis. Economic dimension of cartels The Polish Competition and Consumers Protection Act of thereafter the Act of protects competition as a public interest similarly to the situation found in other EU countries.


Economic Approach to Counteracting Cartels

It is characteristic to the legal approach associated with cartels. Economic analyses, being fully aware of their statistical and methodological weaknesses, should be applied in anti-cartel proceedings in order to keep the equilibrium between a legalistic and an economic approach to the evaluation of business performance.

President of the Antimonopoly Office in Poland between and The European cement cartel, which operated for ten years with the support of the European Association of Cement Producers Cembureaueight national associations and 33 cement manufacturers, constitutes a good example of a precise organisation and stability of a cartel.

Of direct relevance to cartel proceedings is the fact that the Act of treats the intention to restrict or eliminate competition in a relevant market purpose of an agreement as an action infringing competition law, irrespective of its implementation effect of an agreement.

Nalebuff, Co-opetition, New Yorkp. How important is an economic analysis for the results of anti-cartel proceedings considering that they are prohibited per se, that is, absolutely and unconditionally?

Whish, Competition Law, London, Edinburghp. In their opinion, the market is able to self-adjust its deviations to the normal status of competitive equilibrium. Additional information registration calendar, class conductors, localization and schedules of classesmight be available in the USOSweb system: It is likely that the weak discipline of Polish cartels results from a general lack of social capital the inability to co-operate among Poles in various areas including, most probably, also cartel agreements.


Understanding how the market operates and what factors determine the behavior of consumer and producers.

This poses a warning for competition authorities that economic criteria and an economic analysis needs to be applied for an objective evaluation of the behaviour of market players. Interdependence generating market followers is reached through market research and strategic planning, or even by playing a sophisticated business game in order to mislead other market players. First, price-fixing is effective when: Principle and Execution, Harvard Additional information registration calendar, class conductors, localization and schedules of classesmight be available in the USOSweb system:.

This is essential for increasing market transparency which may be facilitated by the following mikroeionomia Parallel action is not prohibited by competition law and the President of UOKiK did not find collusion between the gas stations.

Information about fuel prices at gas stations is public and displayed on pylons easily seen from a distance. Nevertheless, the focus has now clearly shifted towards cartels especially since the Act of has eliminated motions Articles 49 and 86 in favour of an ex officio initiation of competition law proceedings. The price game played by oligopolists forces competitors to reduce costs and may eliminate weakest players thus increasing market concentration as well as transparency of the relevant market.

In the latter case, competition law shall not be applicable because, even though its market effects may seem similar to those of an overt collusion, mikrpekonomia have neither met nor agreed upon their actions A digressive penalty scheme encourages cartel members to file leniency notices.