Unit 1: Introduction to surveying • Unit 2: Chain surveying • Unit 3: Measurement of directions and angles • Unit 4: Traversing • Unit 5: Levelling and contouring. Contouring in surveying is the determination of elevation of various points on the ground and fixing For vertical control levelling instrument is commonly used. There are various types of leveling used in surveying for measurement of level difference of different points with respect to a fixed point. This is.

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Most lenses are made of transparent glass.

A vector quantity includes both magnitude and direction, but a scalar quantity includes only magnitude.

A set of ring contours with higher values inside, depicts a hill whereas the lower value inside, depicts a depression without an outlet.

It is done at the end of the days work in the form of fly levelling to connect the finishing point and starting point. Similarly, the other points can be located. Physics 41, Winter Lab 1 – The Current Balance Theory Nad a point at a perpendicular distance d from a long straight wire carrying a current I as shown in figure 1.

Optical bench, lenses, mirror, target More information. Open channel flow is not under pressure; gravity is the. Using single lenses to form images Lenses and Telescopes The simplest variety of telescope uses a single lens. Slope and Equations of Lines Section.


It is a recent development. Any well that is not being pumped will do for this, but a well that is. What is a map? Weather Map Weather Maps Many variables are needed to described weather conditions. Boundary line and every fifth the line is marked with a xontouring or red line. Light and Image Formation 1.

Then the base line and cross sections are plotted to a suitable scale. That is the line of collimation may not be horizontal contouging The internal arrangement of focusing tube may not be correct The graduation of the staff may not be perfect. We need to see all the numbers describing weathers at many More information.

A Flemish map maker.

Levelling & Contouring

The vertical accelerometer in this kit consists of a lead sinker hung More information. It is the amount of change in y, the rise, divided by the amount of. Profile levelling or L-Section: The following are the indirect methods are commonly used for locating contours.

A point O is selected on this perpendicular line and then radial lines are drawn from O to the divisions on AB. A slope of zero means More information. Refraction varies considerably with climate conditions. The Curvature of the Earth may affect the staff readings when the distance of sight is long.

Surveying and Leveling: Lesson Contours- Introduction

The Geometry of Right Triangles 6. The effect of refraction is to make the object appear higher then they really are. Square or grid method: The contour of Contouring involves providing of vertical control for location of points on the contours and horizontal control for planimetric plotting of points. The fundamental difference between auto level and other levels is that the levelling is not manually but it is levelled automatically.


Electron Charge-to-Mass Ratio To understand how electric and magnetic fields impact an electron beam To experimentally determine the electron charge-to-mass ratio. Methods of grid levelling Lesson In this method, the area to be surveyed is divided into a grid or series of squares. Equipment Reflection and Refraction Acrylic block set, plane-concave-convex universal mirror, cork board, cork board stand, pins, flashlight, protractor, ruler, mirror worksheet, rectangular block worksheet.

Squares or Grid method Cross section method Square or grid method: Map reading made easy Map reading made easy 1.

A contour is defined as an imaginary line of constant elevation on the ground surface. The grid size may vary from 5 m x 5 m to 25 m x 25 m depending upon the nature of the terrain, the contour interval required and the scale of the map desired. Lenses and Telescopes A. Thus, contours are spaced equally for uniform slope The steepest slope of terrain at any point on a contour is represented along the normal of the contour at that point.

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